1. Introduction

Sugar (sucrose)comprises of two main molecules as followed: glucose and fructose (Victoria , 2014)
The number of obese people in the world has doubled in the last three decades.During this time, our eating habits have changed greatly :none homemade food consumption percentage has risen,people are now more reliant on quickly prepared processed foods, and sugar consumption per person has risen to the highest ever.  That leads to some researchers to warn that health problems (Corliss etal, 2014), such as heart disease will grow in future decades. Food was just as abundant before the obesity epidemic started. Sugar both drives fat storage and makes the brain think it is hungry, creating a vicious cycle that will be explained below. More specifically, it is fructose - a component of Sugar (sucrose) that is harmful. (The other component is glucose) 
Fructose decreases Insulin effectiveness. Insulin is a hormone which controls metabolism. Insulin sends a signal to these cells that they should put transporters for glucose onto their surface, thereby allowing glucose to get into the cells where it can be used.
Fructose also decreases brain response ability to leptin. Leptin is produced by fat cells and is sent to the brain to tell it how much fat the body has in store. If the body has enough fat stored, the brain will send a signal not to eat anymore. Thus if this response is hindered, people might continue to eat without the resistance of leptin signals and thus gain more weight, whether through sugar or not. Another study showed that fructose did not reduce blood levels of ghrelin nearly as much as glucose did . Ghrelin is the hormone which makes you how hungry you are. The more ghrelin, the more hungry you are. In a study done here by (Karen, 2013), fructose does not lower the ghrelin levels in blood as much as glucose did, thus not decreasing the will to eat as much as glucose. However,  both are components of sucrose, so sugary drinks don’t fill you up, and give you calories. This is bad.
Sugar is addictive. It has  the same neural pathways as drugs of abuse such as nicotine and cocaine it releases opiates and dopamine in the reward system of the brain (specifically  Nucleus Accumbens) and these are the same areas stimulated by drugs of abuse (Kris, 2013) such as nicotine and cocaine.
So by starting to consume huge amount of sugar, we are actually indirectly abusing it and making ourselves addicted to it and when addicted, we consume even more which makes us even more fat, thus ending ourselves in our in a constant circle. Therefore we are trying to make a set up where we will be able to test the amount of sugar content in a drink using household materials, the methods are following...


Method 1(laser and prism)
Independent variable :  Type of Drinks
Dependent variable : Sucrose % 
Constants : The position of the the hollow prism 
    : The distance between of the hollow prism and the laser
     : The distance between the hollow prism and the wall/paper
     : The distance between the laser and the wall/paper
    : The position of the laser.

Method 2 (refractometer)
Independent variable :  Type of Drinks
Dependent variable : Sucrose % 
Constants : The calibration of the refractometer must be done with distilled water
    : The amount of liquid used
    : The the daylight plate should be dry and wiped before doing a test.
     : The amount of light of entering

Method 3(hydrometer )
Independent variable :  Type of Drinks
Dependent variable : Sucrose % 
Constants : The user must be at eye level when reading the readings
    : The carbon dioxide gas in the drink must be get rid of as much as possible
    : The temperature of the surrounding
     : The hydrometer will produce the best results if it is spun just before the readings are taken as it would reduce the number the air bubbles attached to the hydrometer.

Method 4 (polariser )
Independent variable : Type of Drinks
Dependent variable : sucrose%  
Constants : The amount of drinks pour into the cylinder  
    : The position of the PVC pipe and the cylinder 
    : The intensity of the lamp
     : The position of the lamp
     : The light should be viewed from the top as the angle and the light passing through will differ if now viewed from the top.





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